Antifreeze Proteins - Applied Research



Phippen, S.W., Stevens, C.A., Vance, T.D.R., King, N.P., Baker, D., Davies, P.L. (2016) Multivalent display of antifreeze proteins by fusion to self-assembling protein cages enhances ice-binding activities. Biochemistry 55, 6811-6820. PubMed: 27951652

Bar-Dolev, M., Bernheim, R., Guo, S., Davies, P.L., Braslavsky, I. (2016) Putting life on ice: Bacteria that bind to frozen water. RSC Interface. 2016 Aug;13(121). pii: 20160210. doi: 10.1098/rsif.2016.0210. PubMed: 27534698

Bar-Dolev, M., Braslavsky, I., Davies, P.L. (2016) Antifreeze protein function. Ann. Rev. Biochem. 85, 515-542. PubMed: 27145844

Jung, W., Campbell, R.L., Gwak, Y., Kim, J.I., Davies, P.L., Jin, E. (2016) New cysteine-rich ice-binding protein secreted from Antarctic microalga, Chloromonas sp. PLoS ONE. 2016 Apr 20;11(4):e0154056. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0154056. eCollection 2016. PubMed: 27097164

Marshall, C.J., Basu, K., Davies P.L. (2016) Ice-shell purification of ice-binding proteins. Cryobiology. 72 (3), 258-263. doi: 10.1016/j.cryobiol.2016.03.009. Epub 2016 Mar 26. PubMed: 27025155

Basu, K., Campbell, R.L., Guo, S., Sun, T., Davies, P.L. (2016) Modeling repetitive, non-globular proteins. Protein Sci. 25 (5), 946-58 Feb 23. doi: 10.1002/pro.2907. [Epub ahead of print] Review. PubMed:26914323

Basu, K., Wasserman, S.S., Jeronimo, P.S., Graham, L.A., Davies, P.L. (2016) Intermediate activity of midge antifreeze protein is due to a tyrosine-rich ice-binding site and atypical ice plane affinity. FEBS J. 283 (8) 2016 Feb 20. doi: 10.1111/febs.13687. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed:26896764  




Sun, T., Davies, P.L., Walker, V.K. (2015) Structural basis for the inhibition of gas hydrates by alpha-helical antifreeze proteins. Biophys. J. 109, 1698-1705. PubMed: 26488661

Stevens, C., Drori, R., Zalis, S., Braslavsky, I., Davies, P.L. (2015) Dendrimer-linked antifreeze proteins have superior activity and thermal recovery. Bioconjugate Chemistry. PubMed: 26267368

Drori, R., Davies, P.L., Braslavsky, I. (2015) When are antifreeze proteins in solution essential for ice growth inhibition? Langmuir 31(21), 5805-5811. [Epub ahead of print]. PubMed: 25946514

Drori, R., Davies, P.L., Braslavsky, I. (2015) Experimental correlation between thermal hysteresis activity and the distance between antifreeze proteins on an ice surface. RCS Advances 5(11), 7848-7853. View the article on-line

Basu, K., Graham, L.A., Campbell, R.L., Davies, P.L. (2015) Flies expand the repertoire of protein structures that bind ice. PNAS 112(3), 737-742. PubMed: 25561557




Davies, P.L. (2014) Ice-binding proteins: a remarkable diversity of structures for stopping and starting ice growth. Trends in Biochemical Sciences 39(11), 548-555. PubMed: 25440715

Drori, R., Celik, Y., Davies P.L., Braslavsky, I. (2014) Ice-binding proteins that accumulate on different ice crystal planes produces distinct thermal hysteresis dynamics. J. R. Soc. Interface 11(98): 20140526. PubMed: 25008081

Sun, T., Lin, F-H., Campbell, R.L., Allingham, J.S., Davies, P.L. (2014) An antifreeze protein folds with an interior network of over 400 semi-clathrate waters. Science 343(6172), 795-8. PubMed: 24531972

Basu, K., Garnham, C.P., Nishimiya, Y., Tsuda, S., Braslavsky, I., Davies, P.L. (2014) Determining the ice-binding planes of antifreeze proteins by fluorescence-based ice plane affinity. J. Vis. Exp. (83), e51185. PubMed: 24457629 Video




Graham L.A, Hobbs R.S, Fletcher G.L, Davies P.L. (2013) Helical antifreeze proteins have independently evolved in fishes on four occasions. PLoS ONE 8(12), e81285. PubMed: 24324684

Hakim, A., Nguyen, J.B., Basu, K., Zhu, D.F., Thakral, D., Davies, P.L., Isaacs, F.J., Modis, Y., Wuyi Meng, W. (2013) Crystal structure of an insect antifreeze protein and its implications for ice binding. J. Biol. Chem. 288(17), 12295-304. PubMed: 23486477

Celik, Y., Drori, R., Pertaya-Braun, N., Altan, A., Barton, T., Bar-Dolev, M., Groisman, A., Davies, P.L., Braslavsky I. (2013) Microfluidic experiments reveal that antifreeze proteins bound to ice crystals suffice to prevent their growth. PNAS 110(4), 1309-14. PubMed: 23300286




Guo, S., Garnham, C.P., Whitney J.C., Graham, L.A., Davies, P.L. (2012) Re-evaluation of a bacterial antifreeze protein as an adhesin with ice-binding activity. PLoS ONE 7(11), e48805. PubMed: 23144980

Graham, L.A., Li, J., Davidson, W.S., Davies, P.L. (2012) Smelt was the likely beneficiary of an antifreeze gene laterally transferred between fishes. BMC Evol. Biol. 12, 190. PubMed: 23009612  

Garnham, C.P., Nishimiya, Y., Tsuda, S., Davies, P.L. (2012) Engineering a naturally inactive isoform of type III antifreeze protein into one that can stop the growth of ice. FEBS Lett. 586(21), 3876-81. PubMed: 23017208

Middleton, A.J., Marshall, C.B., Faucher, F., Bar-Dolev, M., Braslavsky, I., Campbell, R.L., Walker, V.K., Davies, P.L. (2012) Antifreeze protein from freeze-tolerant grass has a beta-roll fold with an irregularly structured ice-binding site. J. Mol. Biol. 416(5), 713-724. PubMed: 22306740




Garnham, C.P., Campbell, R.L., Davies, P.L. (2011) Anchored clathrate waters bind antifreeze proteins to ice. PNAS 108(18), 7363-7367. PubMed: 21482800




Garnham, C.P., Natarajan, A., Middleton, A.J., Kuiper, M.J., Braslavsky, I., Davies, P.L. (2010) Compound ice-binding site of an antifreeze protein revealed by mutagenesis and fluorescent tagging. Biochemistry 49(42), 9063-9071. PubMed: 20853841

Celik, Y., Graham, L.A., Mok, Y.F., Bar, M., Davies, P.L., Braslavsky, I. (2010) Superheating of ice crystals in antifreeze protein solutions. PNAS 107(12), 5423-5428. PubMed: 20215465




Amir, G., Rubinsky, B., Horowitz, L., Miller, L., Leor, J., Kassif, Y., Mishaly, D., Smolinsky, A.K., and Lavee, J. (2004). Prolonged 24-hour subzero preservation of heterotopically transplanted rat hearts using antifreeze proteins derived from arctic fish. Ann. Thorac. Surg. 77 (5):1648-55. 

Hall-Manning, T., Spurgeon, M., Wolfreys, A.M., and Baldrick, A.P. (2004) Safety evaluation of ice-structuring protein (ISP) type III HPLC 12 preparation. Lack of genotoxicity and subchronic toxicity. Food Chem. Toxicol. 42 (2): 321-33. 

Tachibana, Y., Fletcher, G.L., Fujitani, N., Tsuda, S., Monde, K., and Nishimura, S. (2004) Antifreeze glycoproteins: elucidation of the structural motifs that are essential for antifreeze activity. Angew Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 43 (7):856-62. 

Zhang, D.Q., Liu, B., Feng, D.R., He, Y.M., and Wang, J.F. (2004) Expression, purification, and antifreeze activity of carrot antifreeze protein and its mutants. Protein Expr. Purif.", 35 (2): 257-63.




Amir, G., Rubinsky, B., Kassif, Y., Horowitz, L., Smolinsky, A.K., and Lavee, J. (2003) Preservation of myocyte structure and mitochondrial integrity in subzero cryopreservation of mammalian hearts for transplantation using antifreeze proteins-an electron microscopy study. Eur. J. Cardiothoracic Surg. 24 (2): 292-6; discussion 296-7. 

Baardsnes, J., Kuiper, M.J., and Davies, P.L. (2003) Antifreeze protein dimer: when two ice-binding faces are better than one. J. Biol. Chem. 278 (40):38942-7. E-pub 2003 Jul 17. 

Tomczak, M.M., Hincha, D.K., Crowe, J.H., Harding, M.M., and Haymet, A.D. (2003) The effect of hydrophobic analogues of the type I winter flounder antifreeze protein on lipid bilayers. FEBS Lett. 551 (1-3): 13-9. 

Bindslev-Jensen, C., Sten, E., Earl, L.K., Crevel, R.W., Bindslev-Jensen, U., Hansen, T.K., Stahl Skov, P., and Poulsen, L.K. (2003) Assessment of the potential allergenicity of ice structuring protein type III HPLC 12 using the FAO/WHO 2001 decision tree for novel foods. Food Chem. Toxicol. 41 (1): 81-7. 

Kuiper, M.J., Lankin, C., Gauthier, S.Y., Walker, V.K., and Davies, P.L. (2003) Purification of antifreeze proteins by adsorption to ice. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Comm. 300 (3): 645-8. 

Pudney, P.D., Buckley, S.L., Sidebottom, C.M., Twigg, S.N., Sevilla, M.P., Holt, C.B., Roper, D., Telford, J.H., McArthur, A.J., and Lillford, P.J. (2003) The physico-chemical characterization of a boiling stable antifreeze protein from a perennial grass (Lolium perenne). Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 410 (2): 238-45. 




Crevel, R.W., Fedyk, J.K., and Spurgeon, M.J. (2002) Antifreeze proteins: characteristics, occurrence and human exposure. Food Chem.Toxicol. 40 (7): 899-903. 

Huang, T., Nicodemus, J., Zarka, D.G., Thomashow, M.F., Wisniewski, M., and Duman, J.G. (2002) Expression of an insect (Dendroides canadensis) antifreeze protein in Arabidopsis thaliana results in a decrease in plant freezing temperature. Plant Mol. Biol. 50 (3): 333-44. 

Karanova, M.V., Pronina, N.D., and Tsvetkova, L.I. (2002) The effect of antifreeze glycoproteins on survival and quality of fish spermatozoa under the conditions of long-term storage at +4 degree C [Article in Russian]. Izv Akad Nauk Ser Biol. Jan-Feb; (1): 88-92. 

Koshimoto, C., and Mazur, P. (2002) Effects of warming rate, temperature, and antifreeze proteins on the survival of mouse spermatozoa frozen at an optimal rate. Cryobiology. 45 (1): 49-59. 

Wang, L.H., Wusteman, M.C., Smallwood, M., and Pegg, D.E. (2002) The stability during low-temperature storage of an antifreeze protein isolated from the roots of cold-acclimated carrots. Cryobiology. 44 (3): 307-10. 




Fletcher, G.L., Hew,C.L., and Davis, P.L. (2001). Antifreeze Proteins of Teleost Fishes. Annu Rev. Physiol,63: 359-90




Duncker, B.P., Davies, P.L., and Walker, V.K. (1999). Increased gene dosage augments antifreeze protein levels in transgenic Drosophila melanogaster. TRANSGENIC RESEARCH. 8: 45-50.

Fletcher, G.L., Goddard, S.V., and Wu, Y.L. (1999). Antifreeze proteins and their genes: From basic research to business opportunity. CHEMTECH. 29: 17-28

Kenward, K.D., Brandle, J., McPherson, J., and Davies, P.L. (1999) Type II fish antifreeze protein accumulation in transgenic tobacco does not confer frost resistance.TRANSGENIC RESEARCH. 8: 105-117.

Oliver, A.E., Tablin, F., Walker, N.J., and Crowe, J.H. (1999) The internal calcium concentration of human platelets increases during chilling. BIOCHIMICA ET BIOPHYSICA ACTA - BIOMEMBRANES. 1416: 349-360.

Pham, L., Dahiya, R., and Rubinsky, B. (1999). An in vivo study of antifreeze protein adjuvant cryosurgery. CRYOBIOLOGY. 38: 169-175 




Feeney, R.F., and Y. Yeh. (1998). Antifreeze proteins: current status and possible food uses. Trends in Food Science and Technology. 9: 1-5.

Ishiguro, H., and Rubinsky, B. (1998). Influence of fish antifreeze proteins on the freezing of cell-suspensions with cryoprotectant penetrating cells. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER. 41: 1907-1915

Oliver, A.E., Tablin, F., Walker, N.J., Tsvetkova, N.M., and Crowe, J.H. (1998). The internal Calcium concentration of human platelets increases during chilling through the thermotropic phase-transition. MOLECULAR BIOLOGY OF THE CELL. 9:1461-1461

O'Neil, L., S.J. Paynter, B.J. Fuller, R.W. Shaw, and A.L. DeVries. (1998). Vitrification of mature mouse oocytes in a 6 Me2SO solution supplemented with antifreeze glycoproteins: the effect of temperature. Cryobiol. 37: 59-66.

Younis, A.I., B. Rooks, S. Khan, and K.G. Gould. (1998). The effects of antifreeze peptide III (AFP) and insulin transferrin selenium (ITS) on cryopreservation of chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) spermatozoa. J. Androl. 19: 207-214.




Baguisi, A., A.Arav, T.F.Crosby, J.F.Roche, and M.P.Boland. (1997). Hypothermic storage of sheep embryos with antifreeze proteins - development in-vitro and in-vivo. Theriogenology. 48 (6): 1017-1024

DeOliveira, D.B., and R.A.Laursen. (1997). Control of calcite crystal morphology by a peptide designed to bind to a specific surface. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 119: 10627-10631. 

Graham, L.A., Y.C.Liou, V.K.Walker, and P.L.Davies. (1997). Hyperactive antifreeze protein from beetles. Nature. 388 (6644): 727-728

Grandum, S., and K.Nakagomi. (1997). Characteristics of ice slurry containing antifreeze protein for ice storage applications. Journal of Thermophysics and Heat Transfer. 11 (3): 461-466

Hays, L.M., Feeney, R.E., Tablin, F., Oliver, A.E., Walker, N.J., Crowe, L.M., and Crowe, J.H. (1997). Fish antifreeze glycoproteins protect cellular membranes during lipid-phase transitions. NEWS IN PHYSIOLOGICAL SCIENCES. 12: 189-194

Karanova, M.V., L.I.Zsvetkova, and N.N.Petropavlov. (1997). Effect of antifreeze glycoproteins on quality of cryoconserved carp sperm (Russian). Biofizika. 42 (3): 725-728 

Koushafar, H., and B. Rubinsky. (1997). Effect of antifreeze proteins on frozen primary prostatic adenocarcinoma cells. Urology. 49: 421-425.

Koushafar, H., L.Pham, C.Lee, and B.Rubinsky. (1997). Chemical adjuvant cryosurgery with antifreeze proteins. Journal of Surgical Oncology. 66 (2): 114-121 

Loewen, M.C., X.Liu, P.L.Davies, and A.J.Daugulis. (1997). Biosynthetic production of Type-II fish antifreeze protein - fermentation by Pichia pastoris. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology. 48 (4): 480-486. 

Reeves, N.J. and J.S. Evans. (1997). Polypeptide interactions at ice and biomineral interfaces are defined by secondary structure-dependent chain orientations. Journal of Physical Chemistry. 101: 6665-6669.

Tablin, F., Walker, N.J., Oliver, A.E., Crowe, L.M., and Crowe, J.H. (1997). Anti-freeze glycoproteins (AFGPs) inhibit lateral phase-separation of platelet membrane-lipids during cold-storage of washed human platelets. BLOOD. 90 is.10 pt.1 supp.1: 1173-1173

Tyshenko, M.G., D.Doucet, P.L.Davies, and V.K.Walker. (1997). The antifreeze potential of the spruce budworm thermal hysteresis protein. Nature Biotechnology. 15 (9): 887-890

Wallis, J.G., H.Y.Wang, and D.J.Guerra. (1997). Expression of a synthetic antifreeze protein in potato reduces electrolyte release at freezing temperatures. Plant Molecular Biology. 35 (3): 323-330 




Arav, A., Y. Zeron, S.B. Leslie, E. Behboodi, G.B. Anderson, and J.H. Crowe. (1996). Phase-transition temperature and chilling sensitivity of bovine oocytes. Cryobiology. 33: 589-599.

Chao, H.M., R.S.Hodges, C.M.Kay, S.Y.Gauthier, and P.L.Davies. (1996). A natural variant of Type I antifreeze protein with 4 ice-binding repeats is a particularly potent antifreeze. Protein Science. 5 (6): 1150-1156.

Chao, H.M., P.L. Davies, and J. F. Carpenter. (1996).Effects of antifreeze proteins on red blood cell survival during cryopreservation. J. Exp. Biol. 199: 2071-2076. 

Hays, L.M., R.E.Feeney, L.M.Crowe, J.H.Crowe, & A.E.Oliver. (1996). Antifreeze glycoproteins inhibit leakage from liposomes during thermotropic phase-transitions. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America,vol.93, pp.6835-6840.

Palasz, A.T., and R.J. Mapletoft. (1996). Cryopreservation of mammalian embryos and oocytes - recent advances. Biotechnology Advances: 96, 127-149.

Tablin, F., A.E. Oliver, N.J.Walker, L.M.Crowe, & J.H.Crowe. (1996). Membrane phase transition of intact human platelets - correlation with cold-induced activation. Journal of Cellular Physiology, vol 168, pp. 305-313.

Tatsutani, K., B. Rubinsky, G. Onik, and R. Dahiya. (1996). Effect of thermal variables on frozen human primary prostatic adenocarcinoma cells. Urology. 48: 441-447.

Tilser, I., E. Breierov , M. Tich , H. Skalsk , and E. Ettlerov . (1996). Effect of supplementation of University of Wisconsin Solution with glycoproteins from psychrophilic strains of yeast on hypothermic liver storage of rats. Cryobiol. 33: 347-353.

Upreti, G.C., S.R.Payne, D.M.Duganzich, J.E.Oliver & J.F.Smith. (1996). Enzyme leakage during cryopreservation of ram sperm. Animal Reproduction Science, vol. 41, pp. 27-36.

Younis, A.I and K.G. Gould. (1996). Influence of antifreeze glycoprotein (AFGP) on preservation of motility characteristics of frozen-thawed chimpanzee sperm. Biology of Reproduction, 54: supplement 1, p186, abstract # 517. (N.B. Dr. Younis confirmed on Oct 31, 1996, that these experiments were actually done with AFP Type III, and this will be reflected in the manuscript which is in prep at this time).




Griffith, M., and K.V. Ewart. (1995). Antifreeze proteins and their potential uses in frozen foods. Biotechnology Advances. 13: 375-402.

Karanova, M.V., L.M.Mezhevikina, & N.N.Petropavlov. (1995). Investigation of the cryoprotective properties of antifreeze glycoproteins of the White Sea cod Gadus morhua on low temperature freezing of mouse embryos. Biofizika, vol.40, pp.1341-1347.

Mezhevikina, L.M., M.V.Karanova. (1995). The use of antifreeze glycoproteins in the freezing of early mouse embryos in liquid nitrogen. Izvestiya Akademii Nauk Seriya Biologicheskaya, is.2, pp.172-177.

Mugnano, J.A., T.Wang, J.R.Layne, A.L.DeVries, & R.E.Lee. (1995). Antifreeze glycoproteins promote intracellular freezing of rat cardiomyocytes at high subzero temperatures. American Journal of Physiology-Regulatory, Integrative, and Comparative Physiology, vol. 38, pp. R 474-R 479.

Payne, S.R. and O.A. Young. (1995). Effects of pre-slaughter administration of antifreeze proteins on frozen meat quality. Meat Sci. 41: 147-155.

Shaw, J.M., C. Ward, and A.O. Trounson. (1995). Survival of mouse blastocysts slow cooled in propanediol or ethylene glycol is influenced by the thawing procedure, sucrose and antifreeze proteins. Theriogenology. 43, 1289-1300.

Shaw, J.M., C. Ward, and A.O. Trounson. (1995). Evaluation of propanediol, ethylene glycoll, sucrose and antifreeze proteins on the survival of slow-cooled mouse pronuclear and 4-cell embryos. Human Reproduction. 10, 396-402.

Wang, R.X., P.J.Zhang, Z.Gong, and C.L.Hew. (1995). The expression of antifreeze protein gene in transgenic goldfish (Carasius auratus) and its implication in cold adaptation. Mol. Marine Biol. Biotech. 4: 20-26.




Arav, A., B. Rubinsky, E. Seren, J.F. Roche, and M.P. Boland. (1994). The role of thermal hysteresis proteins during cryopreservation of oocytes and embryos. Theriogenology. 41: 107-112. 

Karanova, M.V. and L.I. Tsvetkova. (1994). Cryoprotective properties of antifreeze glycoproteins upon freezing of fish sperm. Izvestiya Akademii Nauk Seriya Biologicheskaya. is.5: 818-827.

Lillford, P.J. and C.B. Holt. (1994). Antifreeze Proteins. Journal of Food Engineering. 22, 475-482.

Payne, S.R., J.E. Oliver, and G.C. Upreti. (1994). Effect of antifreeze proteins on the motility of ram spermatozoa. Cryobiol. 31: 180-184.

Payne, S.R., D. Sandford, A. Harris, and O.A. Young. (1994). The effects of antifreeze proteins on chilled and frozen meats. Meat Sci. 37: 429-438.

Payne, S.R. and P.W.Wilson. (1994). Comparison of the freeze-thaw characteristics of Antarctic Cod (Dissostichus mawsoni) and Black Cod (Paranotothenia augustata) - possible effects of antifreeze glycoproteins. J. Musc. Foods. 5: 233-244.

Rubinsky, B, A. Arav, J.S. Hong, and C.Y. Lee. (1994). Freezing of mammalian livers with glycerol and antifreeze proteins. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Comm. 200: 732-741.

Wang, T.C., Q.Y. Zhu, X.P.Yang, J.R. Layne, and A.L. DeVries. (1994). Antifreeze glycoproteins from Antarctic notothenioid fishes fail to protect the rat cardiac explant during hypothermic and freezing preservation.  Cryobiology: 31, 185-192.

Yeh,Y., R.E. Feeny, R.L. McKown, and G.J. Warren. (1994). Measurement of grain growth in the recrystallization of rapidly frozen solutions of antifreeze glycoproteins. Biopolymers. 84: 1495-1504.




Arav, A., B. Rubinsky, G. Fletcher, and E. Seren. (1993). Cryogenic protection of oocytes with antifreeze proteins. Mol. Rep and Dev. 36: 488-493.

Itskovitz-Eldor, J., J. Levron, A. Arav, S. Bar-Ami, D.W. Stein, G.L. Fletcher, and B. Rubinsky. (1993). Hypothermic preservation of human oocytes with antifreeze proteins from sub-polar fish. Cryo-Letters. 14: 235-242.

Sutton, R.L. and D.E. Pegg. (1993). Devitrification in butane-2,3-diol solutions containing anti-freeze peptide. Cryo-Letters. 14: 13-20.

Warren, G.J., C.M. Hague, L.V. Corotto, and G.M. Mueller. (1993). Properties of engineered antifreeze peptides. FEBS Letters: 321, 116-120.




Carpenter, J.F. and T.N. Hansen. (1992). Antifreeze protein modulates cell survival during cryopreservation: Mediation through influence on ice crystal growth. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 89: 8953-8957.

Hansen, T.N., J.E. Villafranca, and J.F. Carpenter. (1992). Enhanced cryopreservation of human red blood cells with recombinant antifreeze peptide. FASEB J. 6: A172-A172.

Lee, C.Y., B. Rubinsky, and G.L. Fletcher. (1992). Hypothermic preservation of whole mammalian organs with antifreeze proteins. Cryo-Letters. 13: 59-66.

Negulescu, P. A., B. Rubinsky, G.L. Fletcher, & T.E. Machen. (1992). Fish antifreeze proteins block Ca++ entry into rabbit parietal cells. American Journal of Physiology. 263, C1310-C1313. 

Rubinsky, B., A. Arav, and A.L. DeVries. (1992). The cryoprotective effect ofantifreeze glycopeptides from Antarctic fishes. Cryobiol. 29: 69-79.

Rubinsky, B., M. Mattioli, A. Arav, B. Barboni, and G.L. Fletcher. (1992). Inhibition of Ca++ and K+ currents by "antifreeze" proteins. Am. J. Physiol. 262: R542-R545.

Zhang, M.I.N., and J.H.M.Willison. (1992). Electrical impedance analysis in plant tissues: in vivo detection of freezing injury. Can. J. Bot. 70: 2254-2258.




McKown, R.L., and G.J.Warren. (1991). Enhanced survival of yeast expressing an antifreeze gene analogue after freezing. Cryobiology. 28: 474-482.

Rubinsky, B., A. Arav, and G.L. Fletcher. (1991). Hypothermic protection - a fundamental property of "antifreeze" proteins. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Comm. 180: 566-571.




Rubinsky, B., A. Arav, M. Mattioli, and A.L. DeVries. (1990). The effect of antifreeze glycopeptides on membrane potential changes at hypothermic temperatures. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Comm. 173: 1369-1374.



Antifreeze Proteins - Pure Research



Evans, R.P., and Fletcher, G.L. (2004). Isolation and purification of antifreeze proteins from skin tissues of snailfish, cunner and sea raven. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1700(2): 209-17. 

Gilbert, J.A., Hill, P.J., Dodd, C.E., and Laybourn-Parry, J. (2004) Demonstration of antifreeze protein activity in Antarctic lake bacteria. Microbiology. 150 (Pt 1):171-80. 

Lewis, J.M., Ewart, K.V., and Driedzic, W.R. (2004). Freeze Resistance in Rainbow Smelt (Osmerus mordax): Seasonal Pattern of Glycerol and Antifreeze Protein Levels and Liver Enzyme Activity Associated with Glycerol Production. Physiol Biochem Zool. 77(3): 415-22. 

Marshall, C.B., Fletcher, G.L., and Davies, P.L. (2004). Hyperactive antifreeze protein in a fish. Nature. 429 (6988):153. 

Marshall, C.B., Tomczak, M.M., Gauthier, S.Y., Kuiper, M.J., Lankin, C., Walker, V.K., and Davies, P.L. (2004). Partitioning of fish and insect antifreeze proteins into ice suggests they bind with comparable affinity. Biochemistry 43 (1):148-54. 




Cheng, C.H., Chen, L., Near, T.J., and Jin, Y. (2003) Functional antifreeze glycoprotein genes in temperate-water New Zealand nototheniid fish infer an Antarctic evolutionary origin. Mol. Biol. Evol. 20 (11):1897-908. E-pub 2003 Jul 28. 

Graether, S.P., Gagne, S.M., Spyracopoulos, L., Jia, Z., Davies, P.L., and Sykes, B.D. (2003) Spruce budworm antifreeze protein: changes in structure and dynamics at low temperature. J Mol. Biol. 327 (5): 1155-68. 

Low, W.K., Lin, Q., and Hew, C.L. (2003) The role of N and C termini in the antifreeze activity of winter flounder (Pleuronectes americanus) antifreeze proteins. J. Biol. Chem. 278 (12): 10334-43. E-pub 2003 Jan. 13. 

Murray, H.M., Hew, C.L., and Fletcher, G.L. (2003) Spatial expression patterns of skin-type antifreeze protein in winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus) epidermis following metamorphosis. J. Morphol. 257 (1): 78-86. 

Raymond, J.A., and Knight, C.A. (2003) Ice binding, recrystallization inhibition, and cryoprotective properties of ice-active substances associated with Antarctic sea ice diatoms. Cryobiology. 46 (2): 174-81. 

Tomczak, M.M., Marshall, C.B., Gilbert, J.A., and Davies, P.L. (2003) A facile method for determining ice recrystallization inhibition by antifreeze proteins. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Comm. 311 (4): 1041-6. 




Baardsnes, J., and Davies, P.L. (2002) Contribution of hydrophobic residues to ice binding by fish type III antifreeze protein. Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1601 (1): 49-54. 

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Murry, H.M., Hew, C.L., and Fletcher, G.L. (1997). Localization of winter flounder Type-I antifreeze expression in gill and scale whole mounts using nonisotopic in-situ hybridization. CRYO-LETTERS JAN-FEB 97. 18: 12-12 

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Hew, C. L., Wang, N. C., Yan, S., Cai, H., Sclater, A., & Fletcher, G. L. (1986). Biosynthesis of antifreeze polypeptides in the winter flounder - characterization and seasonal occurrence of precursor polypeptides.  European Journal of Biochemistry: 160, 267-272.

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Fletcher, G. L., Hew, C. L., Li, X. M., Haya, K., & Kao, M. H. (1985). Year-round presence of high levels of plasma antifreeze peptides in a temperate fish, ocean pout (Macrozoarces americanus).  Canadian Journal of Zoology: 63, 488-493.

Hew, C. L., & Fletcher, G. L. (1985). Biochemical adaptation to the freezing environment - structure, biosynthesis, and regulation of fish antifreeze polypeptides. In:  Circulation, respiration and metabolism. illis, R. (ed.) Springer-Verlag, Berlin and Heidelberg. pp. 553-563.

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Hew, C. L., Slaughter, D., Joshi, S. B., Fletcher, G. L., & Ananthanarayanan, V. S. (1984). Antifreeze polypeptides from the Newfoundland ocean pout, Macrozoarces americanus: presence of multiple and compositionally diverse components. Journal of Comparative Physiology B: 155, 81-88. 




Fletcher G. L., Hew, C. L., & Joshi, S. B. (1982). Isolation and characterization of antifreeze glycopeptides from the frostfish, Microgadus tomcod.  Canadian Journal of Zoology: 60, 348-355.

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